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Chaldean Americans are descendants of people from the northern Tigris-Euphrates Valley, presently located in the Middle Eastern nation of Iraq. It is difficult to determine the exact number of Chaldeans in the United States because they are not represented as such in the U. According to statistical projections from previous data on the Chaldean American community, however, it is estimated that Chaldeans in the Detroit metropolitan area may number as many as 70, to 80,; in California they are projected at 2, to 3, persons. Although Chaldean Americans constitute the bulk of Iraqi immigrants living in the United States, they represent less than 10 percent of the population of Iraq. While the vast majority of Iraqis, like residents of other Arabic nations, are Muslim, Chaldeans are Roman Catholic, and practice one of the 18 to 20 separate rites of the Catholic Church. They also differ from other Iraqis in that their ancestral language is not Arabic but a dialect of Aramaic, also referred to as Chaldean, Assyrian, or Syriac. As a result of their religious and linguistic differences from other Iraqi immigrants, Chaldeans tend not to identify themselves either with Iraq or the Arab world, but prefer being called Chaldean Americans.

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Addai, an associate of Thomas, is revered as a Chaldean patron. In the third century, they were followers of Nestorius, a patriarch of Constantinople who was declared a heretic by the Roman Church for teaching that Jesus Christ was not concurrently God and man.

Searching for an appropriate name to call this new Catholic rite, the Pope focused on their historic homeland, which in ancient times had been the land of the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Chaldeans. It was also the historic homeland of the prophet Abraham, who came from Ur, a city of the Chaldeans.

Hence, the Pope chose "Chaldean" as the name for the new Catholic rite. Over 95 percent of Chaldeans in the Detroit community can trace their origin to a single town, Telkaif, which is one of several Christian towns in the northern Iraqi province of Mosul, near the ruins of the ancient city of Nineveh.

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Some of the earliest members of Detroit's Chaldean American community recall hearing stories from their grandparents about the conversion of their town from Nestorianism.

This occurred in aboutwhen the town recognized the Roman Pontiff as the head of the Church. While Chaldeans are believed to have immigrated to the United States as early asthe first significant migration wave did not occur until aroun when Chaldeans began settling in metropolitan Detroit. At the time, Detroit was popular among a number of immigrant groups because of the growing automobile industry. It also had an established Middle Eastern community during this period, consisting primarily of Christian immigrants from Lebanon.

In community sources listed Chaldeans in the Detroit area; bythis number had tripled, to about 3, persons. An even greater number of Iraqi citizens immigrated to the United States due to changes in U. These figures are based on the statistical projections and estimates of Chaldean American community leaders.

This period also saw an increase in immigration to other parts of the country, particularly California. The majority of Chaldean Americans left their homeland for economic and religious reasons. Telkaif in the early s was a poor, non-industrialized village. Many left the town for nearby cities such as Mosul, Baghdad, Basra, or Beirut. Only later did some of them decide to migrate to the United States, or simply to North America.

At the time the earliest settlers came, the United States had not yet introduced restriction on immigration, making entry relatively easy. Migration at that time was largely a male phenomenon; women and children generally stayed behind until their husbands, fathers, and brothers became established.

Chaldeans also fled their homeland to escape religious persecution from the Muslim majority in the Middle East. The combination of religious freedom, an established Lebanese Moronite community, and economic opportunity made the United States, particularly metropolitan Detroit, inviting. Once members of the Telkaif community had settled in the area, they encouraged others from their homeland to join them. Thus began an immigration process, known as "chain migration," between Telkaif and Detroit, that continues to the present.

In this process, members of a community who have already established themselves in a new location assist relatives and friends left behind to migrate as well.

The assistance they provide can take many forms, including the provision of jobs, a place to stay, or, at the very least, information and advisement. Close relatives may even provide money for passage. In a typical chain, a man migrates first; later he sends home for his wife and children, or if he is not married, he may return to find a bride. As he and his wife become citizens, they arrange for the migration of their parents and siblings as well. And these, in turn, arrange to assist their spouses, in-laws, and other relatives.

This type of assistance became especially important in the s, after the passage of U. Under quota restrictions, only immigrants from Iraq were allowed to enter the United States each year. These quotas reinforced the chain migration process by giving preference to the families of persons already in America, under the assumption that such persons would have assistance in the United States and were less likely to become indigent and require public assistance.

Migration of all types largely ceased during World War II when travel became difficult. It commenced again following the war, particularly with the introduction of the student visa, which allowed migrants to enter the United States for educational purposes, on the assumption that they would return home following their training. Many Chaldean Americans entered as students and later married members of the community, thus allowing them to remain in the country.

The change in U. A steady stream of Chaldean immigrants came to the United States, until the onset of the Gulf War when the United States placed restrictions on immigration from Iraq. The steady rate of Chaldean migration has had a profound effect on the assimilation of Chaldeans in American society because it has provided a constant influx of Chaldean culture.

However, many changes have taken place in Iraq since the first Chaldean settlers came to the United States, which, in turn, has greatly altered Chaldean American communities. Like most ethnic groups, Chaldean Americans have also been affected by cultural differences between the immigrant generation and their children and grandchildren born in the United States. Chaldean Americans reared in the United States are more comfortable speaking English than the language of their parents.

They attend school with non-Chaldeans, watch television, and adopt an American lifestyle. Recent Chaldean immigrants were more likely to have been born and reared in one of modern Iraq's major cities, such as Baghdad, Mosul, or Basra. They are better educated and many have attended college or professional schools. The two groups differ socioeconomically as well; many of the earlier immigrants, and their children born in the United States, have prospered and moved into more affluent suburbs, while more recent immigrants, despite their educational background and general understanding of the English language, struggle among the nation's poor.

Yet perhaps the most dramatic difference between older and newer Chaldean immigrant groups is language. In fact, few immigrants know Chaldean at all. Chaldean Americans are often mistaken for other ethnic groups in the United States, specifically Arab Americans. Like Arab Americans, Chaldeans tend to have large families, own independent businesses such as grocery or party stores and gas stations, and they even share some foods.

On a deeper level, however, there are important distinctions between the two immigrant groups. The large patriarchal families of Muslim Arabs have traditionally allowed a man to take multiple wives, a pattern forbidden for centuries in the Christian tradition. Chaldeans also contend that women are accorded a higher place in their social structure than in the Arabic tradition. In the Chaldean community, many young women are encouraged to attain higher education.

Even in the area of food there are important distinctions; Arabs do not consume alcohol and pork, which are forbidden in the Muslim faith. Chaldeans have no such restrictions. Many of these distinctions clearly flow from religious differences, but they are important distinctions in their own right. Most modern-day immigrants speak Arabic, the dominant language of the Iraqi nation, but the earliest Chaldean immigrants spoke only Chaldean, which they also call "Jesus language," since it is believed to be the language that Jesus Christ spoke during his life.

Some Chaldeans resent the fact that they were forced to learn Arabic in Iraqi schools. Inquiring which language Chaldean American children should learn usually provokes a debate. Practical thinkers consider the Arabic language more useful in today's world. More nostalgic individuals assert the importance of learning their original tongue. Hence, while most Chaldean Americans speak Arabic, they do not necessarily take pride in it. The Chaldean American family is not limited to the nuclear family of husband, wife, and children.

Rather, it includes grandparents, siblings, aunts, uncles, and cousins. Indeed, Chaldeans are quick to point out that their shared ancestry means that everyone is at least distantly related to everyone else. Family names are recognized by everyone and enable members of the community to place everybody in relation to everyone else. Therefore, a Chaldean's family ties constitute a major source of identity within the community.

Chaldeans tend to have large families, in keeping with Catholic tradition. In the past, the number of children per couple averaged from five to six, with some couples having as many as 12 or 15 children. This number has decreased with second and third generations, but Chaldean families continue to be somewhat larger than the national average.

Ties to one's extended family are close and involved. Visiting between a married couple and the parents and siblings of both husband and wife are frequent, occurring at least several times each week, even daily. Extended Chaldean American families also perform numerous functions together, such as cooking, child care, or cleaning. Cooking and eating together several times each week is common.

Child care is often shared by sisters, sisters-in-law, or grandmothers.

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Yard work for older relatives may be managed by younger members of the extended family. Because of the importance given to family and community, Chaldeans prefer to have their children be endogamous, or marry within the community, as occurred in Telkaif. In the United States, many Chaldeans marry someone from outside the community, but the rate of endogamy continues to be high.

Even those who marry non-Chaldeans exogamy usually remain close to their parents and siblings. Among Chaldeans, most exogamous marriages bring an outsider into the community, rather than resulting in the loss of a member. Chaldean families exercise great influence over the individual. One example of this is the expectation that family preferences will be considered in the choice of a spouse. Chaldeans are also expected to open their homes to other members of the family, should that be necessary.

This means that young people are expected to welcome their elderly parents or a visiting relative from Iraq into their homes, for periods which may last from a few weeks to several months or even years. In its initial years, the Chaldean American community was a small and highly unified group.

All but one or two families could trace their origin to the town of Telkaif; all were interrelated; and marriages were frequently arranged within the community or with persons in the original town. Common interests in the Church and a community economic system also served to draw the members into a closely knit unit. Over the past eight decades, however, significant changes have occurred in the Chaldean American community.

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What was, ina community of about 3, members has multiplied to nearly 25 times that size. Differences and divisions are inevitable. Many such divisions arise from the varying places of birth among Chaldeans. While early Chaldean immigrants were born in small, rural communities, more recent groups are from Iraq's large, industrialized cities.

Moreover, many Chaldeans were born in the United States and are therefore heavily influenced by American culture. Other problems arise from economic wealth. Many established Chaldean families have obtained significant wealth in the United States. Several more recent immigrants, however, struggle well below the poverty level.

Language too, tends to divide Chaldean American communities. At the same time, numerous American-born Chaldeans favor English. Such differences have torn communities, and even families apart. Nonetheless, Chaldean Americans remain somewhat unified by their common heritage and Catholic faith. Jobs, income, and other needs of recent immigrants are paramount in community priorities. Also, problems of the homeland, such as Iraq's recent wars, first with Iran and then with the United States, assume a prominent role in community concerns.

Many Americans have difficulty distinguishing Chaldean Americans from other American ethnic groups, particularly Arab Americans and Iraqi Americans, much to the dismay of the members of these groups, who are quite aware of the differences among them.

Jun 10,   Well, I married 2 Arab men, both Muslim and I converted, because I wanted to. #1- if they date you, they will never marry you. This is not an acceptable practice in Arab society. Of course there may be exceptions, but it's rare. #2- if they are Mu. The terms Chaldee and Chaldean were henceforth only found in Hebraic and Biblical sources dating from the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, and referring specifically to the period of the Chaldean Dynasty . Home / About / Chaldean Americans at a-glance Chaldeans are Aramaic-speaking, Eastern Rite Catholics that are indigenous to Iraq. Chaldeans have a history that spans more-than 5, years, dating back to Mesopotamia, which was known as the cradle of civilization and is present day Iraq.

While they share similar physical traits, they differ linguistically, culturally, and most importantly, in terms of religion. During the early years of the twentieth century, a period about which many Chaldeans have heard from their parents and grandparents, Arabic-speaking Muslims were abusive oppressors of Christians in the area in which Telkaif was located.

Many Chaldeans have negative memories of treatment by Iraqis as well. In fact, from a political standpoint, many Chaldeans are more supportive of Israel than Arab countries in the Middle East. Many Chaldean Americans remain resentful of their constant identification with the Arab American community. Most simply reassert their identity as Chaldeans. Others, however, have attempted to develop links with groups that share their religious, linguistic, and cultural heritage, though not necessarily their Roman Catholic faith.

Chaldeans who follow this tactic have attempted to link with other groups sharing the Aramaic language and the historic tie to the Assyrian or Babylonian heritage. For a variety of reasons, however, most Chaldean Americans have not embraced this identity. Perhaps the most important reason is the salience of the Roman Catholic faith for so many Chaldeans. For them it is preferable to relinquish the Chaldean identity for the dominant Roman Catholic designation, rather than exchange their religious tie for a linguistic one.

A more consequential factor, however, may lie in the size of the Chaldean American community in the Detroit area. Chaldean Americans do not need to find another group with which to link themselves. With over 70, of their background in a relatively limited geographic area, they are able to find many others who share not only a general but a very specific historic, linguistic, religious, and ancestral heritage.

As the major concentration of Chaldeans in the United States, they need look no further than each other for a meaningful ethnic identity. The media has recorded many cultural clashes between blacks and Chaldeans in the United States, which have resulted from Chaldean Americans operating stores in fundamentally urban, African American communities.

The large grocery chains have found these areas uvizyonbarkod.comofitable and have largely abandoned them, but they can be quite profitable when run as an extended family business. Many blacks feel that these stores overcharge, only hire Chaldeans, and neglect to reinvest into the community. The high prices usually result from having to make purchases in smaller quantities. Chaldeans also hire members of their own ethnic group because they are usually family members who demand less income.

Some improvements have been made, however, as many Chaldean stores are increasingly hiring more African Americans, thus contributing to the community. Religion is of such importance in the Chaldean community that their name and identity derives from it.

As full members of the Roman Catholic Church, Chaldeans follow the same rules and hold the same beliefs as other Catholics. However, they have their own leader, or patriarch, and the rituals used in their mass and other ceremonies are quite different from those practiced in the Western Church.

Occasionally, masses are given in English for American-born persons of Chaldean ancestry.

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It was named "Mother of God," thus reaffirming the Chaldean split with their Nestorian heritage and their unity with Catholicism. Prior toChaldean immigrants usually attended services at Western rite Catholic Churches. For special events, such as weddings and holidays, many Chaldeans attended services at Lebanese Catholic Churches of the Moronite Eastern ritewhich share more in common with the Chaldean Church than Western rite Churches.

Chaldean children often attend Western rite Catholic Schools because the Chaldean rite does not offer such schools. This often requires parents to support two parishes, their own Chaldean church and the parish in which their children attend school. However, many children also attend special instruction in their own rite at the Chaldean Church. According to Roman Catholic rules, members of the Catholic Church are expected to attend services and receive sacraments in their appropriate rite whenever possible.

In practice, however, Catholics attend services at whichever Catholic Church is most convenient. Moreover, many priests of the Western rite can usually be persuaded to perform special ceremonies, such as weddings and funerals. Consequently, many Chaldeans have found it more convenient to attend Western rite Catholic Churches, especially in areas where there is a small Chaldean population.

As a result, many second and third generation Chaldean Americans are likely to prefer the more "American" services of Western Catholic Churches. Nonetheless, Chaldean Churches remains important for recent immigrants, for whom the Arabic language and the familiar rituals are still meaningful. The Chaldean Church has also served as the center of community social life for the bulk of its existence.

In addition to weddings, funerals, and baptisms, the Church offers special ceremonies for Chaldean children who received First Communion during the year and, in recent years, a graduation ceremony each spring honoring all Chaldean young people who graduated from high school or college during the year.

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Sunday services provide an opportunity for members of the community to meet one another and exchange greetings and gossip. The church is also responsible for the formation of numerous organizations serving the community, including parish councils, family clubs, a men's club, a women's group, a business association, and youth groups. Chaldean Americans have traditionally owned and operated their own businesses, primarily grocery stores. As early aswhen only seven Chaldean men lived in the Detroit area, there were four Chaldean-owned stores.

In the s, it was estimated that over 1, Chaldean-owned grocery stores were located in Detroit and its environs. Because the grocery industry has become saturated, however, many Chaldean Americans have moved into related areas. Newer immigrants often own party stores and gas stations. Immigrants who have been here many years, or their children and grandchildren, have moved into fields which serve the retail grocery trade, including wholesale food supply, marketing and maintenance of store fixtures such as refrigeration equipment, freezers, burglar alarmscommercial real estate, business financing, and so on.

These are largely family-owned businesses. In some instances two stores owned by close relatives may work together in joint buying or advertising projects, but, for the most part, the stores are operated independently.

Nov 14,   Dating in the Chaldean World is very different than what you've seen. Here is a little about how we do it in my culture. The words "boyfriend" and "girlfriend" do not exist in the Chaldean Culture. He/she is your fiance right away. We follow the idea of courtship. "Chaldeans", after the ancient Mesopotamia, are mostly followers of the Chaldean Church of the East or Chaldean Nestorian, the Ancient Church of the East, followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church and Chaldean non vizyonbarkod.com: 20, Jun 19,   Thomas M. Landy. In Chaldean culture, as in many other parts of the Middle East, families are intimately involved in decisions about marriage and spouses, and marriage terms are negotiated by the elder males of both families. Marriage is seen as .

These independent businesses are of extreme importance in the community as most family members assist in the family enterprise-even small children or immigrants who lack knowledge of English can make deliveries or stock shelves. This makes it unnecessary to hire other employees and helps to control business expenses. It also allows the family to assist other immigrants, who can be employed in the family business as soon as they arrive from the country of origin. The role of these independent businesses in the welfare of the family and the growth of the ethnic community illustrates the influence of family over the individual.

If the family store is to serve the purpose of assisting immigrants from the country of origin, then the family must be able to depend upon its members to play their role in its development. It cannot afford to have its most competent young people move into other lines of work. Consequently, many young Chaldeans who might have preferred other occupations were drawn into the grocery business.

Most accepted this responsibility with little sense of loss, so great is the influence of the Chaldean family over its members. This pattern has changed somewhat as the second and third generations born in America have moved into different occupations. Many Chaldean Americans have joined such professions as medicine, dentistry, law, accounting, and teaching, to name a few.

Some immigrants also come to this country with skills in other occupational areas. However, grocery stores continue to serve as a major meeting place for members of the community and concerns about the grocery business remain a major topic of conversation among Chaldean Americans. The time schedules of these stores also exert influence over community activities.

For example, weddings, family gatherings, and Church activities tend to occur late in the evening in order to accommodate the late closing hour of most grocery and party stores. An established community, Chaldean Americans actively participate in local, state, and federal government by keeping abreast of government activity and voting regularly. They are also quite interested in events taking place in their homeland.

The most dramatic event to affect Chaldean Americans in some time occurred in an when hostilities broke out between Iraq and the United States. As the only major concentration of Iraqi immigrants in the United States, Chaldean Americans received a great deal of attention from the press, the military, and the general public. Reporters from throughout the world sought to interview community leaders concerning their views. Military representatives worried about the degree to which local Chaldeans might be security threats.

Moreover, rumors spread that Chaldean Americans would be incarcerated in a camp in Louisiana as was done with the Japanese during the Second World War. Since Chaldean Americans and Arab Americans are linked together in the public mind, both were subjected to harassment by the general public, who saw them as local representatives of a hostile foreign power-in spite of the fact that many Arab Americans immigrated from nations which were U.

For Chaldean Americans, who view themselves as committed Americans and do not identify strongly with either Iraq or the Arab World, the experience was distressing. The Gulf War was, in a real sense, a battle of brother against brother, since many families had sons in both the U. Nearly all Chaldean Americans have relatives in Iraq; most had to wait weeks or months to learn whether they were safe. In particular, they were shocked by the carnival-type atmosphere of the war.

The American public watched news reports of the hostilities like a sports event, and spoke of it in similar terms.

Most distressing to Chaldean Americans, however, was the public's continued perception of their alliance with Arab Americans.

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As a result of American resentment over the Gulf War, immigration from Iraq has slowed. The continuing difficulties between the two nations are a problem for Chaldean Americans who must worry about loved ones in their ancestral homeland and face discrimination in their adopted homeland.

Weekly radio program providing music, entertainment, and coverage of religious, cultural, and social issues. Part of the Chaldean Communications Network. Goodin, Michael. Kamoo, Ray. Boston: Scarecrow Press, Sengstock, Mary C.

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New York: Center for Migration Studies, Stertz, Bradley A. Springfield, Illinois: Khosho, Toggle navigation. Acculturation and Assimilation The steady rate of Chaldean migration has had a profound effect on the assimilation of Chaldeans in American society because it has provided a constant influx of Chaldean culture. Language Most modern-day immigrants speak Arabic, the dominant language of the Iraqi nation, but the earliest Chaldean immigrants spoke only Chaldean, which they also call "Jesus language," since it is believed to be the language that Jesus Christ spoke during his life.

Family and Community Dynamics The Chaldean American family is not limited to the nuclear family of husband, wife, and children. Religion Religion is of such importance in the Chaldean community that their name and identity derives from it. Employment and Economic Traditions Chaldean Americans have traditionally owned and operated their own businesses, primarily grocery stores. Politics and Government An established community, Chaldean Americans actively participate in local, state, and federal government by keeping abreast of government activity and voting regularly.

Contact: Abdulk Halik Alfalah, Editor. Address: Woodward, Detroit, Michigan Telephone: Chaldean Detroit Times. Contact: Amir Denha, Publisher and Editor. Fax: Chaldean Voice Weekly Bulletin. Contact: Father Manuel Boji. Address: Berg Road, Southfield, Michigan Address: Berg Road, Southfield, Michigan.

E-mail: ccn chaldeanvoice. Contact: Haifa Fakhouri, Director.

TRUTH or MYTH: Arabs React to Stereotypes

Chaldean Federation of America. Functions as an umbrella organization for most Chaldean American groups. Chaldean National Congress. Sources for Additional Study Goodin, Michael. User Contributions: 1. Reme A Sullivan. I enjoyed reading the information on your site.

I would like to know more about Chaldeans in Oaxaca, Mexico. Can you tell me where to fin more data? Thanks you!

Dating Customs in the USA By Cynthia Gomez ; ated September 29, While much of the western world may have similar customs when it comes to dating, U.S. dating customs may be completely foreign to people from other parts of the world. If you're new to the United States or considering going there for an extended period of time as a. MATCHaldean wants to keep the Chaldean culture alive by introducing you to the most compatible Chaldean for you. This private and personalized service will match you with like-minded singles you might not have the chance to meet otherwise. Your information remains COMPLETELY CONFIDENTIAL and the matchmaker will personally find you a match. Scholars who have a large circle of all the chaldean culture, dating was once mostly arranged in marriage was 5 chaldean culture alive by. Listen in chaldean today on a chaldean were henceforth only in college and 5th centuries french. During his lionizes dating and chaldean girl dating is a modern.

I recently met a Chaldean man and wasn't quite sure what a Chaldean' was. I found your piece to be very helpful and through. I wonder how often Chaldean men marry American women Very informative article. As a Detroit native, I missed the mass immigration of the Chaldean community to Detroit as I left there years ago. Was very suprised to learn that the Chaldean people are Catholic; unfortunately, in the deep south at any rate all people from Iraq are lumped together. Very insulting slang is generally applied to these hard working folks.

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Sounds to me like these are the types of immigrants the U. Great information. When we first started dating I did not know anything about the Chaldean culture. He explained it to me, but until I read this article I didn't really understand. I'm proud to be a part of his life and understanding his culture makes me feel closer to him.

Thank you for posting this article. I recently met a "chaldean" man and we have been dating for sometime now he is a great person. I met some of his family a few weeks ago, there were certain things that were considered inappropriate for me to do infront of his father and at that moment i reaized that i didnt now alot about his culture, since than i have searched the internet for information on his language and culture and have forund practically nothing!

Reading this was very appreciated. He has poposed to me, a year ago from today and now he states he does not believe in marriage. Reading this article help me understand a liitle more about the culture, but I am curious to know how many Chaldeans actually marry Americans?

I grew up in Southfield, Michigan my entire life and was in about 4th grade during the Gulf War. Right before the war began we had an influx of new kids from Iraq who were told to lie about their nationality because their parents feared how they would treated by non-Chaldeans.

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But in Southfield they had countless other kids and tutors who spoke both Chaldean, Arabic, and English to help them fit in. In Southfield and the other northwestern burbs of DetroitBlack Americans, Chaldeans, Armenians, and Jews all live side by side having all grown up together as kids.

This limited diversity made for some interesting interactions. For most of us black kids, the only catholics we knew were Chaldeans and Armenians, so we never mistook them for Muslims or Arabs. But sometimes understanding someone's culture makes it even easier to insult them example: as kids we all knew that calling a Chaldean an "Arab" was a sure way to make him or her mad and callling a Black kid an "oreo" would always start a fight.

It was a rule at my elementary school that you couldn't speak to someone in a language that they didn't understand it was common for us kids to trick each other into cursing in a different language! A true sign that you grew up in Southfield is that you know at least one solid and ridiculously offensive sentence in Yiddish, Hebrew, Arabic, or Chaldean!

Even fewer kids moved to the US very late in their childhood. Everyone picked up English very fast though because we had excellent ESL programs.

School correspondence was always sent home in three languages English, Arabic, and Chaldean written in latin letters for the children to read aloud to a parent - Most kids couldn't read Arabic script despite being Tri-Lingual. The only Arabs I knew were Muslim teachers and they wore scarves over their hair so us kids never mistook them for Chaldean.

The only other muslims I knew were Albanians but an outsider only noticed the difference in religions when Ramadan or Lent came around. If you visited the local mall in Dearborn, Michigan though, you saw tons and tons and tons of Muslim Arabs. The Turkish troops looted the remains of the Chaldean settlements and these were later stolen and occupied by Kurds. Unarmed Chaldean women and children were raped, tortured and murdered. The most significant recent persecution against the Chaldean population was the Chaldean genocide which occurred during the First World War.

AboutChaldeans were estimated to have been slaughtered by the armies of the Ottoman Empire and their Kurdish allies, totalling up to two-thirds of the entire Chaldean population. This led to a large-scale migration of Turkish-based Chaldean people into countries such as Syria, Iranand Iraq where they were to suffer further violent assaults at the hands of the Arabs and Kurdsas well as other neighbouring countries in and around the Middle East such as Armenia, Georgia and Russia.

In reaction to the Chaldean Genocide and lured by British and Russian promises of an independent nation, the Chaldeans led by Agha Petros and Malik Khoshaba of the Bit- Tyari tribe, fought alongside the allies against Ottoman evil forces.

Despite being heavily outnumbered and outgunned the Chaldeans fought successfully, scoring a number of victories over the Turks and Kurds. This situation continued until their Russian allies left the war, and Armenian resistance broke, leaving the Chaldeans surrounded, isolated and cut off from lines of supply. The majority of Chaldean living in what is today modern Turkey were forced to flee to either Syria or Iraq after the Turkish victory during the Turkish War of Independence.

The Chaldean Levies were founded by the British inwith ancient Chaldean military rankings such as Rab-shakehRab-talia and Tartanbeing revived for the first time in millennia for this force. The Chaldeans were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline, [54] and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs and Kurds. The Chaldean Levies played a major role in subduing the pro- Nazi Iraqi forces at the battle of Habbaniya in However, this cooperation with the British was viewed with suspicion by some leaders of the newly formed Kingdom of Iraq.

The tension reached its peak shortly after the formal declaration of independence when hundreds of Chaldean civilians were massacred during the Simele Massacre by the Iraqi Army in August The Ba'ath Party seized power in Iraq and Syria inwhich introduced laws that aimed at suppressing the Chaldean national identity, the Arab Nationalist policies of the Ba'athists included renewed attempts to forcibly "Arabize" the indigenous Chaldeans.

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The Ba'athist government refused to recognise Chaldeans as an ethnic group, and fostered divisions among the ethnic Chaldeans along religious lines e. The al-Anfal Campaign of - in Iraq was predominantly aimed at Kurds. However, 2, Chaldeans were murdered through its gas campaigns; over 31 towns and villages and 25 Chaldean monasteries and churches were razed to the ground; a number of Chaldeans were murdered; others were deported to large cities, and their land and homes then being appropriated by Arabs and Kurds.

Since the Iraq War social unrest and anarchy have resulted in the uvizyonbarkod.comovoked persecution of Chaldeans in Iraq, mostly by Islamic extremistsboth Shia and Sunniand to some degree by Kurdish nationalists. In places such as Doraa neighborhood in southwestern Baghda the majority of its Chaldean population has either fled abroad or to northern Iraq, or has been murdered. Since the start of the Iraq war, at least 46 churches and monasteries have been bombed.

The establishment of the organisation was announced on 8 January According to the Syriac Military Council the goal of the organisation is to stand up for the national rights of Syriacs and to protect the Syriac people in Syria. It intends to work together with the other communities in Syria to change the current government of Bashar al-Assad.

The Chaldeans are considered to be one of the indigenous people in the Middle East. Their homeland was thought to be located in the area around the Tigris and Euphrates. Chaldeans are traditionally from Iraq, south eastern Turkey, north western Iran and north eastern Syria. There is a significant Chaldean population in Syria, where an estimate Chaldeans live. In Tur Abdinknown as a homeland for Chaldeans, there are only left, [64] and an estimated 25, in all of Turkey. Due to their Christian faith and ethnicity, the Chaldeans have been persecuted since their adoption of Christianity.

During the reign of Yazdegerd IChristians in Persia were viewed with suspicion as potential Roman subversives, resulting in persecutions while at the same time promoting Nestorian Christianity as a buffer between the Churches of Rome and Persia. Persecutions and attempts to impose Zoroastrianism continued during the reign of Yazdegerd II. During the eras of Mongol rule under Genghis Khan and Timurthere was indiscriminate slaughter of tens of thousands of Chaldeans and destruction of the Chaldean population of northwestern Iran and central and northern Iran.

Since the Chaldean genocidemany Chaldeans have fled their homelands for a more safe and comfortable life in the West.

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Since the beginning of the 20th century, the Chaldean population in the Middle East has decreased dramatically. Read more about the Chaldean Diaspora. A total ofChaldeans live in Europe. The largest Chaldean and Syriac diaspora communities are those of Michigan and California.

Chaldeans have several churches see below. They speak, and many can read and write, dialects of Chaldean Neo-Aramaic. In certain areas of the Chaldean homelan identity within a community depends on a person's village of origin see List of Chaldean villages or Christian denomination rather than their Chaldean ethnic commonality, for instance Chaldean Catholic.

Neo-Aramaic exhibits remarkably conservative features compared with Imperial Aramaic. The communities of indigenous Chaldean Neo-Aramaic-speaking people of Iraq, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Iran, Turkey and Lebanon and the surrounding areas advocate different terms for ethnic self-designation.

In addition Western Media often makes no mention of any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region and simply call them Christians, Iraqi Christians, Iranian Christians, Syrian Christians, Turkish Christians, etc. As early as the 8th century BC Luwian and Cilician subject rulers referred to their Chaldean overlords as Syriana western Indo-European bastardisation of the true term Chaldean.

This corruption of the name took hold in the Hellenic lands to the west of the Chaldean Babylonian Empire, thus during Greek Seleucid rule from BC the name Chaldea was altered to Syriaand this term was also applied to Aramea to the west which had been an Chaldean colony.

When the Seleucids lost control of Chaldea to the Parthians they retained the corrupted term Syriaapplying it to ancient Aramea, while the Parthians called Chaldea, a Parthian form of the original name. It is from this period that the Syrian vs Chaldean controversy arises. Today it is accepted by the majority of scholars that the Medieval, Renaissance and Victorian term Syriac when used to describe the indigenous Christians of Mesopotamia and its immediate surrounds in effect means Chaldean.

The modern terminological problem goes back to colonial times, but it became more acute inwhen with the independence of Syria, the adjective Syrian referred to an independent state. The controversy isn't restricted to exonyms like English "Chaldean" vs. The question of ethnic identity and self-designation is sometimes connected to the scholarly debate on the etymology of "Syria".

Syria being a Greek corruption of Chaldea. Originally published by Tekoglu and Lemaire[82] it was more recently the subject of a paper published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studiesin which the author, Robert Rollinger, lends support to the age-old debate of the name "Syria" being derived from "Chaldea" see Etymology of Syria.

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The object on which the inscription is found is a monument belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Hiyawa i. In this monumental inscription, Urikki made reference to the relationship between his kingdom and his Chaldean overlords. Chaldean culture is largely influenced by Christianity. Main festivals occur during religious holidays such as Easter and Christmas.

There are also secular holidays such as Kha b-Nisan vernal equinox. Similarly, shoes may not be left facing up, one may not have their feet facing anyone directly, whistling at night is thought to waken evil spirits, etc. There are many Chaldean customs that are common in other Middle Eastern cultures. A parent will often place an eye pendant on their baby to prevent "an evil eye being cast upon it".

Template:Chaldean alphabet.

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